Statehood Bibliography (in progress)
(LAE) Last Among Equals – Roger Bell
(SOT) Shoal of Time – Gavan Daws
(HKT) From A Native Daughter - Haunani-Kay Trask
(AH) Annexation Hawaii – Thomas Osbourne
(TTS) Do the Facts Matter - Thurston Twigg Smith
(HHH) History of Hawaii - Curriculum Research and Development Group
1. 1778
a. Capt. Cook’s first contact with Hawaii.
2. 1787
a. Cont. Congress in NY formulated the Northwest Ordinance                                                     i.     Brings into existence the territorial form of government and provides conditions for transition from territory to state.
1.    local self government
2.    civil and political rights
3.    representation by congress
4.    eventual Statehood within the Union
3. 1789
a. Pres. George Washington Pres. Federalist.1789-1797
b. Northwest Ordinance was enacted by the first Congress.
3. 1794
a. Kamehameha “cedes” Hawaii to Vancouver.                                                     i.     Vancouver on HMS Discovery.
                                                      ii.     Sides with Kamehameha against Kahekili, then son, Kalanikupule who was also warring with brother Kaeokulani.
1.    Kahekili cedes territory to William Brown, fur and arms trader, in exchange for guns.
                                                        iii.     Puts Hawaii under the protection of Great Britain
5. 1797
a. Pres. John Adams (Federalist) 1797-1801.
2. 1801
a. Pres. Thomas Jefferson (Democratic-Republican) 1801-1809
2. 1809
a. Pres. James Madison (Democratic-Republican) 1809-1817
2. 1817
a. Pres. James Monroe (Democratic-Republican) 1817-1825
2. 1819
a. May 8, Kamehameha dies. Kapu system overthrown.
b. Liholiho ascends throne.                                                     i.     Kaahumanu, sharing throne, convinces Liholiho to abandon kapu system, signified by eatingwith the women.
10. 1820
a. First U.S. missionaries arrive in Hawaii.                                                     i.     Hiram Bingham, Asa Thurston
b. First significant American Presence???
3. 1823
a. Nov. 27th King Liholiho boards chartered ship, British Whaler L’Aigle, sets off on voyage to England.                                                     i.     In Liholiho’s absence, the missionaries (led by Hiram Bingham) ascribes a new “moral law” to Kaahumanu and Kalanimoku
b. Dec. 2nd  Monroe Doctrine (did not receive name Monroe Doctrine until 1853.)                                                     i.     The American Continents, by the free and independent condition which they have assumed and maintain, are henceforth not to be considered as subjects for future colonization by any European powers
                                                      ii.     We should consider any attempt (by the nations of Europe) to extend their system to any portion of this hemisphere as dangerous to our peace and safety.
                                                        iii.     In the wars of the European powers in matters relating to themselves we have never taken part nor does it comport with our policy so to do.
12. 1824
a. Liholiho dies in England from measles[1]
b.  on July 14.  Kamamalu, his wife, dies July 8th.
c. Sept. 11th, Boki, taking charge of the royal party meets with King George at Windsor Castle.
4. 1825
a. Pres. John Quincy Adams (Democratic-Republican) 1825-1829
2. 1826
a. United States and Hawaii sign treaty of friendship, commerce and navigation
2. 1829
a. Pres. Andrew Jackson (Dem.) 1829-1837
2. 1832
a. June 5th,  Kaahumanu dies
2. 1833
a. Kauikeaouli takes control over government, then reverses and confirms Kinau in the post of kuhina nui.
b. King and Hulumanus, along with Liliha, Boki’s widow, and Kaomi, a Tahitian commoner lead anti-moral revolt.
3. 1834
a. Hulumanu revolt ends when Kauikeaouli tries to take his life.  Surrenders debauchery to the moral standards imposed by Kinau and other chiefs.
2. 1837
a. Pres.  Martin Van Buren (Dem.) 1837-1841
2. 1839
a. French frigate, L’Artimise, threatens Honolulu Harbor. Captain C.P.T. LaPlace.                                                     i.     July 14, France and Hawaii sign treaty of “commerce and friendship”.
1.    Article VI overturns national policy of total abstinence by providing that French merchandise, including wine and brandies, should be admitted to Hawaiian ports.
2.    Article VI places trials of French residents accused of “any crime whatsoever” in the hands of juries to be chosen by the French consul and approved by the Hawaiian government.
3.    Put Catholics on equal terms with Hiram Bingham and the Calvinists.
b. Declaration of rights within the Hawaiian Constitution                                                     i.     David Malo and John Ii, Gerrit P. Judd, Lorrin Andrews, Richard Armstrong (who succeeds Bingham at Kawaiahao), Edwin O. Hall
21. 1840
a. Hawaiian Constitution[2] is ratified: The First Constitution of Hawaii granted by Kamehameha III, October 8, 1840                                                     i.     Embodies principles of representative government
                                                      ii.     Commoners have rights of ownership in the lands of the kingdom.
                                                        iii.     A national legislature begins to meet.
b. Hiram Bingham returns to New England. Replaced by Richard Armstrong.[3] 
22. 1841
a. Pres. William Henry Harrison (Whig) 1841-1841. dies in office.                                                     i.     Pres. John Tyler replaces him (Whig) 1841-1845
b. Hawaiian legislature empowers governors of various islands to lease land to white men for as along as 50 years, and directed foreigners to register their leases in writing so that there should be no misunderstandings about terms and rent.
c. Poncho school formed
4. 1842
a. THE FIRST LAWS OF THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS.                                                     i.     Issued from time to time, and compiled and published in 1842
b. Extending the Monroe Doctrine, Pres. John Tyler defined interest in Hawaii under the reign of King Kauikeaouli.
c. Tyler acted in response to pleas from Hawaii Commissioners, William Richards and Timothy Haalilio.
d.  who had gone to London, Paris and Washington to seek guarantees of independence.[4]  John Ricord, the Attorney General, went abroad in 1847
5. 1843
a. Feb 10, British ship Carysfort anchors in Honolulu. Captained by Lord George Paulet
b. Feb 25, Kauikeaouli relinquishes Kingdom to Paulet[5] with stipulation that Hawaiian Government would make every effort to get back sovereignty.
c. President Tyler states: no nation should seek exclusive commercial privileges at the islands, much less tamper with the independence of the kingdom.  US interest is paramount there, and would regard with dissatisfaction, any attempt at another power to take possession of the island.  Without saying so—he was applying Monroe Doctrine.
d. Nov. 28, Britain and France sign dual agreement engaging “reciprocally to consider the Sandwich Islands an independent state.”e. registered Hawaiian Monarchy in Vienna courts to be recognized as an independent monarchy  Polynesian paper, 1844 ???
25. 1844
a. The Polynesian, a weekly paper by James Jackson Jarves is printed and becomes the official organ of the government.
b. John Ricord becomes Attorney General.
c. Robert Wyllie writes: without the whaling fleet [6]the Hawaiian Islands would relapse into primitive insignificance.
4. 1845
a. Pres. James Knox Polk (Dem) 1845-1849
b. Robert Crichton Wyllie becomes Foreign Affairs Minister.
c. Organic acts[7] passed                                                     i.     Consolidates the existence of
1.    a cabinet
2.    a civil service
3.    independent judiciary
27. 1846
a. William Little Lee becomes Chief Justice of Hawaii Supreme Court.
b. Forced Revision of French treaty of Commerce and Friendship. French Consul Commissioner Guillaume Patrice Dillon  
28. 1848
a. The Mahele[8] is promulgated, allowing for the first time, ownership of land by the people.
b. Organic Act of 1848 created 3-man superior court                                                     i.     Lee, Chief Justice
                                                      ii.     Andrews and John Ii, associate judges
29. 1849
a. Pres. Zachary Taylor (Whig) 1849-1850. dies of Cholera.
b. August. French Consul Dillon and Rear Admiral Legoarant de Tromelin.[9]                                                     i.     Bullied Foreign Minister Wyllie, stormed the prison and turned prisoners loose, broke swords muskets, threw hundreds of kegs of gunpowder in ocean, ransacked a Gov. Kekuanaoa’s house, smashing personal belongings, scrawling obscenities, vandalizings…Stole royal yacht, Kamehameha III.
c. There was no diplomatic settlement. Sept 5, Tromelin and Dillon left for France and was reprimanded and dismissed.
d. The Northern Journal, a newspaper in Lowville NY, published an editorial advocating annexation and statehood.
e. Judd, Liholiho(K.IV), and Lot (K.V) commissioned to take treaty problems of the kingdom to US and Europe where he and James Jackson Jarves would try to arrange a settlement,  In the event of a drastic emergency, he was empowered to place the islands under the protection of a foreign nation, or even to sell them, subject to the agreement of the Hawaiian legislature.                                                     i.     Went to SF where he met Charles Eames, Anthony Ten Eyck’s replacement as US Commissioner.
1.    empowered to negotiate treaty with Hawaii
2.    Judd wanted to include clause guaranteeing independence
3.    Eames did not think this lay within the scope of his instructions
4.    Agreed on a draft that left question open.
                                                      ii.     Went to gold fields in CA, Panama, NY, Paris, London…
f. Jarves negotiated treaty with John Clayton[10], Sec. Of State under Taylor.                                                     i.     He was well received, having heard of Tromelin’s incident.
                                                      ii.     Drafted and signed treaty that gave kingdom substantial equality in it’s relation with U.S.
                                                        iii.     At that moment treaty that Judd and Eames worked out arrived in Washington/
1.    Jarves and Clayton sat down to make a composite of the two versions.
a.    End result, a diluted version of Jarve’s original, but satisfactory.
b.    Judd  used it as the model for a new treaty with G.B.
30. 1850
a. Pres. Millard Fillmore (Whig) 1850-1853
b. California admitted as the 31st State.
c. Legislation passed allowing aliens to purchase property on same terms as subjects of the kingdom.
d. Judd left France with no treaty.
e. French warship Serieuse, arrived in Honolulu carrying new French Consul, Emile Perrin, and produced demands that echoed Dillon, and that he had powers to enforce them[11].
f. Masters and Servants Act[12] passed by Legislature                                                     i.     Gives govt. to import foreigners as contract laborers
g. SUGAR[13]                                                     i.     Hawn. Govt. passes laws permitting aliens to buy land in fee simple.  Landowners found agriculture profitable.  Because of California Gold Rush, produce could be profitable—sold high priced meat, vegetables and sugar, then the fee simple titles would guarantee them wealth under the American flag.
31. 1851
a. Rep. J.W. McCorkle of California proposes to Congress the annexation of Hawaii to provide protection in the event of war, and as a strategic location for trade with Asia and the Pacific Islands.
2. 1852
a. A new Hawaiian Constitution of 1852[14] is framed.                                                     i.     All official acts required approval of the PRIVY COUNCIL
                                                      ii.     Every adult male subject of the king, native born or naturalized the right to vote in the election of representatives to the lower house of the national legislature.
b. first Chinese coolies brought to Hawaii.
4. 1853
a. Pres. Franklin Pierce (Dem) 1853-1857
b. French consul Perrin returns in January empowered to make new treaty                                                     i.     You will declare openly Monsieur, that we have never had, nor will ever have, any thought of establishing over the Sandwich Islands a protectorate either direct of indirect, or of exercising there any exclusive influence, religious, political or commercial.
c. smallpox epidemic begins                                                     i.      
34. 1854
a. Kamehameha proposes to the Hawaiian legislature annexation to the US.  It is strongly opposed by Britain and France and is not ratified.
b. By end of year 6,405 of smallpox cases and 2,485 reported deaths.  More likely, according to Richard Armstrong, the death was 5-6,000.
c. Committee of Thirteen[15]:                                                      i.     accused Judd and Armstrong of not doing enough to stop the epidemic early on.
                                                      ii.     Privy Council hearing.  Aug 17 meeting
1.    Judd and Armstrong dismissed—eventually all were dismissed, then on Sept 5, reappointed everyone but Judd.  The minister of Finance was replaced by United States Consul at Honolulu, Elisha H. Allen.
d. Planned coup by Committee of thirteen to establish Independent Republican Government.
e. Dec. 8th Proclamation signed by K.III.  In the face of threats to the kingdom, aid had been requested from Great Britain, France and United States.
f. Kauikeaouli dies Dec. 15
g. Alexander Liholiho becomes K. IV.
h. Committee of 13 lost spirit, several members left the islands.
9. 1855
10. 1856
11. 1857
a. Pres. James Buchanan (Dem) 1857-1861
2. 1861
a. Pres. Abraham Lincoln (Rep. Natl. Union Party) 1861-1865
b. Civil war begins
c. Demand for sugar from Hawaii increases dramatically                                                     i.     Hawaii has to pay import tax to the US.
d. Liholiho brings Episcopal church to Honolulu[16]. 
5. 1863
a. Nov 30, Liholiho dies at 29. native dances and chants performed
b. Kamehameha V (LOT Kapuaiwa) ascends throne                                                     i.     Refuses to recognize Constitution of 1853, writes his own.
40. 1864
a. Constitution of 1864,[17] by Lot                                                     i.     Gave King more power.
b. legislature created Board of Immigration                                                     i.     need to regulate immigration to Hawaii and establish policies for recruiting or enlisting laborers
41. 1865
a. civil war ends
b. Lincoln is shot
c. Pres. Andrew Johnson (Rep. Natl. Union Party) 1865-1869.
d. Wyllie dies in Princeville (Hanalei, Kauai) coffee plantation/sugar plantation. bankrupt
5. 1866
a. Princes Victoria Kamamalu dies. Native chants. Services conducted at Palace by missionary Benjamin Parker.
b. Begin of sugar economic depression
3. 1867
4. 1868
a. Hawaii and U.S. agree to Reciprocity Treaty.                                                     i.     Eliminates import tax on Sugar
                                                      ii.     Enhances sugar industry’s economic future.
45. 1869
a. Pres. Ulysses S. Grant ( Rep.) 1869-1877
2. 1871
a. Pres. Grant supports US minister in Hawaii.
b. Petition for Hawaii’s annexation
3. 1872
a. Lot Dies
2. 1873
a. Elections held for new King between William Lunalilo, Bernice Pauahi Bishop and David Kalakaua.  Lunalilo becomes King (the ali’i lokomaika’i the “good chief”)
3. 1874
a. Lunalilo dies of tuberculosis.
b. New election between Kalakaua, the victor, and Queen Emma (widow of K. IV). Legislative vote: 39-6                                                     i.     Emma was popular with Hawaiians, Haoles favored Kalakaua.
                                                      ii.     There was a riot in the courthouse, one legislator dies
50. 1875
a. Hawaii and US sign reciprocity treaty                                                     i.     Provides duty free admission of specific goods both ways.
                                                      ii.     US interests were supreme—provide Hawaii would not sign a similar treaty with any other nation.
51. 1877
a. Pres. Rutherford B. Hayes (Rep) 1877-1881
2. 1881
a. Pres. James Garfield (Rep) 1881-1881 Assassinated
b. Pres. Chester A. Arthur (Rep) 1881-1885
3.  1882
a. US Congress passes Chinese Exclusion Act
2.  1883
3.  1884
4. 1885
a. Pres. Grover Cleveland (Dem.) 1885-1889
2. 1886
3. 1887
a. BAYONET CONSTITUTION[18] Constitution of 1887
b. In renewal of reciprocity treaty, US ships were granted exclusive use of Pearl Harbor.
3. 1888
a. King Kalakaua dies.??
b.  Liliuokalani ascends the throne
3. 1889
a. Pres. Benjamin Harrison (Rep.) 1889-1893
b. Liliuokalani contemplates the dissolvement of the 18xx, favoring the restoration of the monarchy.
3. 1890
4. 1891
a. David Kalakaua dies in San Francisco, Lili’uokalani ascends throne
2. 1892
a. 2/3 registered voters sign a petition asking queen for a new constitution.
b. Legislature calls for a constitutional convention
c. Annexation club becomes Committee of Safety
4. 1893
a. Liliuokalani overthrown by marines under the authority of Lorrin Stevens, who is also supported by American sugar growers and merchants. 
b. Provisional government is established headed by Sanford Dole.
c. Liliuokalani is under house arrest.
d. Dole sends delegation to petition Congress and Pres. Benjamin Harrison for annexation.                                                     i.     Harrison signs and submits Hawaii Annexation Treaty.
e. Pres. Grover Cleveland elected (Dem.) 1893-1897. When Cleveland takes office he withdraws petition and sends Blount to Hawaii to investigate the overthrow.
f. Blount presents report to Cleveland and Congress.                                                     i.     Concluded Stevens acted without authority.
                                                      ii.     kingdom should be restored.
g. Congress debates issue chooses not to reinstate monarchy.
h. Dec. 20. Cleveland sends Dole, the governor of  the Provisional government of Hawaii a letter asking him to resign and restore authority to Hawaiian Kingdom
9. 1894
a. Dole, the appointed president, refuses to step down. Proclaims Hawaii a republic on July 4
b. Republic of Hawaii 1894-1900
3. 1895
4. 1896
5. 1897
a. Pres. William McKinley (Rep.) 1897-1901 assassinated
b. Negotiations for annexation were renewed after William McKinley succeeds Cleveland.
3. 1898
a. Senate debate over colonialism (AH)
b. Start of Spanish-American war in Cuba.
c. U.S. military ousts Spanish rule in Philippines, establishes U.S. rule.                                                     i.     Hostilities there creates the need for a greater US presence in the Pacific and the Philippines.
70. 1899
a. The Organic Act[19]
2. 1900
a. Congress passes the Organic Act                                                     i.     Establishes framework of new territorial government
72. 1901
a. Pres. Theodore Roosevelt (rep.) 1901-1909
b. U.S. Supreme court makes a ruling giving Hawaii status of an “incorporated territory” like those that formerly existed on the continent                                                     i.     Samoa, Guam, Philippines, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico were declared “unincorporated territories”
73. 1902
74. 1903
a. Hawaii vs. Mankichi.  U.S. Supreme court holds that Hawaii is an incorporated territory.                                                     i.     Any right inherent in them is inherent in the new incorporated Territory of Hawaii, including right to Statehood
b. The second Legislature asks Congress to convene a convention to write a State Constitution, but Congress took no action.
3. 1907
a. Territorial Legislature appropriates funds for a congressional investigation of Statehood.  No action taken.
2. 1909
a. Pres. William H. Taft ( Rep.) 1909-1913
2. 1911
a. Territorial Legislature appropriates funds for a Statehood investigation, and follows through with a petition for statehood, but no action taken.
2. 1913
a. Pres. Woodrow Wilson (Dem.) 1913-1921.
2. 1919
a. Prince Jonah Kuhio Kalanianaole appointed as first Hawaii delegate to 65th Congress.                                                     i.     Introduces first admission bill since annexation established.
80. 1921
a. Pres. Warren G. Harding (Rep.) 1921-1923
b. Wallace Farrington elected governor.                                                     i.     Takes aggressive approach towards statehood.
                                                      ii.     Inspired enactment by state legislature of a “Hawaiian Bill of rights” and “Declaration of Rights”.
                                                        iii.     Demands that Congress respond by appropriating funds for roads, education, farm loans, etc.
81. 1923
a. Harding dies in office
b. Pres. Calvin Coolidge (Rep.) 1923-1929
3. 1929
a. Pres. Herbert Hoover (Rep.) 1929-1933
2. 1931
a. Massie Rape-Murder case causes racial and military tensions in the islands.  Case draws national attention, causing many in Congress to call for Martial Law and a delay in Statehood.
b. Delegate Victor Houston introduced another statehood bill in Dec.
3. 1932
4. 1933
a. Pres. Franklin D. Roosevelt (Dem) 1933-1945
2. 1934
a. Congress enacts Jones-costigan Sugar Act which set up a quota system for sugar, treated Hawaii as foreign, and imposed quota cuts that cost the territory millions of dollars in ensuing years.                                                      i.     Challenge made in Federal court, act was upheld
b. Samuel Wilder King was elected as a delegate to Congress and Joseph R. Farrington to the Territorial Senate,  Both Republicans and strong supporters of Statehood.
3. 1935
a. Samuel King introduces another statehood bill
b. First Congressional delegation visits Hawaii in October to investigate Statehood.                                                     i.     Committee heard 105 witnesses in 12 days of hearings at Iolani Palace.
                                                      ii.     Majority of Islanders in favor of Statehood, but recommended further study be done.
                                                        iii.     Extensive hearings brought about a number of negative reasons regarding statehood.
c. Joseph Farrington fathered law to create an Equal Rights Commission                                                     i.     Answering Congressmen who proposes discriminatory legislation against Hawaii and correcting misrepresentations in Mainland newspapers concerning issues in Hawaii
1.    racial
2.    labor
3.    political
4.    military
88. 1936
2. 1937
a. Second Congressional delegation visits Hawaii, holding 17 days of hearings                                                     i.     Recommends Statehood plebiscite to be held to ascertain the wishes of the people, and that further study be conducted due to the disturbed condition of international affairs.
90. 1938
a. DIES COMMITTEE on Un-American Activities established late in New Deal.                                                       i.     Attempt to expose groups sympathetic w/ totalitarian ideals
91. 1939
2. 1940
a. Congress passes Alien Registration Act (Smith Act)                                                     i.     Prohibits teaching or advocacy of the violent overthrow of the U.S. govt., thereby establishing guilt by intent or association.
93. 1941
a. Japanese attack Pearl Harbor, outbreak of WWII.                                                     i.     Hawaii placed under Martial Law
                                                      ii.     Push for Statehood on hold
94. 1942
a. Joseph Farrington becomes delegate to Congress.
b. Roosevelt appoints Stainback (D.) as governor
3. 1943
2. 1944
a. ILWU was cited by a special Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities as having a solidly entrenched Communist Leadership.                                                     i.     Harry Bridges, National pres. Of ILWU-CIO, was classified by anti statehood and anti labor factions as communist.
97. 1945 Obstacles to Statehood[20]
a. Pres. Roosevelt dies in office.
b. Pres. Harry S. Truman (Dem.) 1945-1953
c. War ends.                                                     i.     Ethnic and class tensions surface (LAE)
                                                      ii.     Emergence of strong controlled labor movement, allegedly communist
1.    conflict between labor and management
2.    wage earners and property owners
d. Interior Secretary Harold Ickes endorses Statehood.
e. 79th Congress refuses to debate Statehood.
f. Labor issue: ILWH changes membership. From 1944 with 900 members, to 1946 with 33,000.                                                     i.     ILWH leader Jack Kawano and regional director Jack Hall.
                                                      ii.     Total wage increase of members by $10M.[21]
g. Republican party controlled legislature passed Hawaii Employment Relations Act (Little Wagner Act)                                                     i.     Extends rights of collective organization and bargaining to agricultural workers.
1.    Sugar and Pineapple plantation workers. Japanese and Filipinos join unions for first time.
98. 1946
a. The National Elections                                                     i.     GOP gains majority in both chambers and wins governorship of majority of states.
1.    Since Hawaii was Republican, it was thought that republican congress would admit republican controlled Hawaii.
b. Pres. Harry S. Truman calls for Statehood in his state of the Union address.                                                     i.     Farrington, a delegate to Congress, is credited with influencing both Truman and US delegation.
c. Citizens Statehood Committee replaces Equal Rights Commission, financed by Governor Stainback contingency fund.                                                     i.     Distributes 38,000 of statehood data, nationally
                                                      ii.     1,500 Lengthy statements to Congressman, newspapers and national organizations
1.    after the war 90% newspapers support immediate Statehood
2.    endorsed by Disabled American Veterans, Nat. Education Assn. Advancement of Colored People, 2,000 Chamber of Commerce, House Committee on Territories.
d. Third Congressional Statehood hearings held in Hawaii.  Delegation recommends immediate Statehood 
99. 1947
a. May. Hawaii Legislature established
b. Eight member Hawaii Statehood Commission is established—succeeds Equal Right Commission.  Essentially a PR piece.                                                     i.     $200,000 allocated for 47-48 session
                                                      ii.     members: A.T. Longley (chairman), Samuel Wilder King, Metzger, Trask, Gavien Bush, Charles A. Rice, Broadbent, Lorrin P. Thurston (who was unsympathetic to statehood),
                                                        iii.     George McLane full-time Exec. Sec. Of Commission, followed by Jack M. Fox and Jan Jabulka, and Burns (in 56).
                                                       iv.     Publish folders, pamphlets books and an intermittent paper: Hawaii Statehood News.
c. 80th Congress[22]                                                     i.     Larcade statehood Bill (different from Farrington, but pro-statehood)
                                                      ii.     Committee on Public Lands (formerly House Commission on Territories) under Richard Welch focused on
1.    national defense
2.    trade
3.    U.S. foreign policy in Asian and Pacific.
d. Statehood hearing held.                                                     i.     35 witnesses over 13 days
                                                      ii.     republican vote 141-50 (3-1) in favor of Statehood
                                                        iii.     55-77 against statehood. with 1/3rd abstaining from vote
e. Commanding general of the Army in Hawaii presented Governor Stainback with a list of alleged communists.[23]
f. MUNDT-NIXON Bill, intended to secure swift prosecution of communists and subversives.                                                     i.     Passed House but not Senate.
                                                      ii.     Truman established order which permitted investigation of loyalty of civil servants.
1.    212 people dismissed, none prosecuted.
g. Walter Dillingham. Big Business                                                     i.     Pres. Of Hawaiian Dredging and Construction Company
                                                      ii.     Maintenance of territorial status was necessary to stop labor leaders gaining “economic, political and social control of the islands.”
                                                        iii.     Preferred territorial rule because it enabled them to strike bargains directly with officials in Washington and bypass interference from elected representatives in Honolulu and Washington.
h. Dr. & Mrs. John Reinecke were suspended form teaching positions by the Territorial Board of Commissioners of Public Instruction because of their alleged associations with the communist party.  Members if Hawaiian Civil Liberties Committee, who defended them were also targeted.
10. 1948
a. Senate initiates further hearings in Hawaii and Washington.                                                     i.     Millikin’s motion: Indefinite deferral of Statehood bill is recommended, 80th Congress adjourns without a Senate floor vote.
1.    Republican opposition was stronger in Senate than in the House.
                                                      ii.     Knowland resolution (pro-Statehood)—removes Statehood bill from Public Lands Committee and placed in Senate Calendar.
1.    Senators Knowland (R.) and Cordon (R.) kept H.R. 49 on the Senate floor
                                                        iii.     in 70 days of hearings, 500 witnesses had testified in favor of statehood, only 66 had opposed it.
1.    three thousand pages of testimony taken
b. Cordon’s Poll revealed 58% favored immediate Statehood, 40% opposed.                                                       i.     1/2 who opposed cited racial character of territory as the reason for their position
                                                      ii.     some saw Japanese as practicing bloc voting thus, 25% of those against statehood, cited race as factor.
c. Thomas O’Brien, in, The Plot to Sovietize Hawaii concedes that there are probably very few communist agents in the Territory.                                                     i.     Contends that although true card-carrying communists constitute a small minority in the territory, the few had been able to seduce the professional liberal and a number of discontented workers. If communists could not be found they were invented by those determined to unearth a threat from the left.  Tactics of smear, exaggeration and unsubstantiated accusation were introduced into Hawaii in 1948,
1.    O’Brian and former Communist, Ichiro Izuka, independently claimed that majority of ILWU officials were members of the Communist party.
a.    Hall, Charles Fujimoto, Qwight Freeman, Ralph Vossbrink, Robert McElrath were among labor leaders named.
5. 1949
6. 1950
a. Attempting to expedite statehood, writes a State Constitution in advance, as a number of other territories have done.  Delegates were elected with an 85% registered voter turnout, a convention held, and public ratified result overwhelmingly in General Election.
b. Another statehood bill
3. 1951
a. The Senate Interior and Insular Affairs Committee submits report to 82nd Congress calling for immediate Statehood, stating that Hawaii unequivocally met every test applied to 29 other Territorial applications for admittance into the Union.                                                     i.     Congress takes no action
b. Loyalty of Japanese population is still an issue
c. Under petitions to Truman, Sec. Of the Interior, Democratic National Committee, urgings by Burns & Co., Truman dismisses Stainback.1.    Failed to give active support to local Democrats
2.    Appointed mostly Republicans to high offices 
3.    Support effort to destroy labor unionism
4.    Blatantly encouraged untrue and imagined allegations of Communist infiltration in Democratic party.
5.    Undermined Hawaii’s statehood prospects through his refusal to back appeals for Statehood to Congress.
                                                      ii.     Truman administration was sympathetic to Stainback.
1.    in 1948 Writes Undersecretary of the Interior Oscar Chapman: As feared, the Communists have taken over the Democratic party in Hawaii
2.    members of the ILWH.
104. 1952
a. A combined Hawaii-Alaska bill is sent to the Senate floor.                                                     i.     Bill sent back to Committee after a 45-44 vote, ending the 82nd Congress
105. 1953
a. Pres. Dwight D. Eisenhower (Rep.) 1953-1961.
b. House in the 83rd Congress passes Statehood bill for the third time, but Senate postpones action
3. 1954
a. Senate votes pass a combined Hawaii-Alaska Statehood bill.  House refuses to hear bill.
b. Joseph Farrington dies in office, his wife Betty Farrington appointed to take his place
3. 1955
4. 1956
a. Congress approves bill to reapportion the Hawaii Legislature, starting with the 58 election
2. 1957
a. John Burns (D.) elected delegate to congress
b. House and Senate pass admission act to admit Alaska into the Union as 49th state.
c. Eisenhower signs bill
4. 1958
5. 1959
a. Alaska becomes 49th state
b. House and Senate pass Admissions Act.                                                       i.     Senate passes 76-15 March 11th
                                                      ii.     House 323-89 March 12th
c. Pres. Eisenhower proclaims Hawaii 50th State
d. William Quinn (R.) appointed Governor the same day
e. June 27, plebiscite vote 132,938- 7,854. various statehood propositions were voted on.                                                     i.     “shall Hawaii immediately be admitted to the union as a state?
f. July 29, Hawaii elected 1st delegates to congress, legislature and governor
g. August 21, Eisenhower signs statehood proclamation.
h. Aug. 21, William Quinn and James Kealoha sworn in as first gov and lt. Gov. 
[1]  DISEASES. (HHH, 50)
a.    1824-1826 and 1832, epidemics of whooping cough and measles. Kills thousands.
b.    1839 epidemic of mumps
c.     1845-1849 epidemic measles whooping cough, influenza ills more than 12,000
d.    1840 first case of leprosy, in 1865 one out of 39 Natives were affected
e.    1853, 1861, 1882 small pox took more than 7,000 lives
[2] 1.  Declaration of Rights, Both of the People and the Chiefs
a.    “God hath made of one blood, all nations of men to dwell on the earth,” in unity and blessedness.  God has also bestowed certain rights on all men and all chiefs, and all people of all lands.
b.    These are some of the rights which He has given alike to every man and every chief of correct deportment; life, limb, liberty, freedom of oppression; the earnings of his hands and the production of his mind, not however to those who act in violation of the laws.
c.     God has also established government, and rule for the purpose of peace; but in making laws for the nation it is by no means proper to enact laws for the nation it is by no means proper to enact laws for the protection of the rulers only, without also providing protection for their subjects; neither is it proper to enact laws to enrich the chiefs only, without regard to enriching their subjects also, and hereafter there shall by no means be any laws enacted which are at variance with what is above expressed, neither shall any tax be assessed, not any service or labor required of any man, in a manner which is at variance with the above sentiments.
2.    Protection for the People Declared
a.    Protection of people and chiefs
b.    Protection is secured persons. Together with lands. Building lots and all property, while they conform to the law of the kingdom, and nothing shall be taken from any individual except by express provision of the laws.
c.     Whatever chief acts in violation of this constitution shall no longer remain a chief, and the same is true of governor, officers and all land agents.
3.    Constitution
a.    It is our design to regulate Kingdom according to above principles
                                                     i.     No law shall be enacted which is at variance with the word of the Lord, or with general spirit of his word.
                                                      ii.     All men of every religion shall be protected in worshiping Jehovah.
                                                        iii.     Law shall give redress to every man who is injured by another without a fault of his own and shall protect all men while they conduct properly, and shall punish all men who commit crime against the kingdom or against individuals, and no unequal law shall be passed for the benefit of one to the injury of another.
                                                       iv.     No man shall be punished unless his crime be first made manifest, neither shall he be punished unless he be first brought to trial in the presence of his accusers, and they have met face to face, an the trial having been conducted according to law and the crime made manifest in their presence, t, then punishment may be inflicted.
                                                      v.     No man or chief shall be permitted to sit as judge or act on a jury to try his particular friend (or enemy), or one who is especially connected with him. Wherefore if any man be condemned or acquitted, and it shall afterwards be made to appear, that some one who tried him acted with partiality for the purpose of favoring his friend (or injuring his enemy), or for the purpose of enriching himself, then there shall be a new trial allowed before those who are impartial.
4.    Exposition of the principles on which the present dynasty is founded.
a.    Kamehameha I founder of Kingdom, then Kamehameha II. Kaahumanu, and Kamehameha III and all documents written by them.  The Kingdom is permanently confirmed to Kamehameha III, and his heirs, and his heir shall be the person whom he and the chiefs shall appoint, during his lifetime, but should there be no appointment, then the decision shall rest with the chiefs and house of Representatives.
5.     Prerogatives of the King
a.    He is sovereign of all people and all the chiefs.  The kingdom is his. Have direction of army and implements of war, direction of govt. property.  He also shall retain his own private lands, and the lands forfeited for the non-payment of taxes shall revert to him.
b.    He shall be the Chief Judge of the Supreme Court, and it shall be his duty to execute the law of the land, also all decrees and treaties with other countries, all however in accordance with the laws.
c.     Form other treaties with rulers of all other kingdoms, receive ministers sent by other countries
d.    Power to make war in time of emergency, when the chiefs cannot be assembled, he shall be the commander in chief.  He shall also have power to transact all important business of the kingdom which is not by law assigned to others.
a.    All documents and business of kingdom executed by the Premier, shall be executed by the King’s authority.
b.    Premier shall be King’s special counselor
c.     King shall not act without knowledge of Premier, nor shall Premier act without knowledge of King. Veto of the King on the acts of the Premier shall arrest the business.  All important business of the kingdom which the King chooses to transact in person, he may do it but not without the approbation of the Premier.
7.    governors
a.    four governors of the Hawaiian Islands: Hawaii, Maui, Oahu, Kauai.  All subject to the king
b.    Each governor have general direction for tax gatherers, and support them in the execution of their orders which he considers to have been properly given. 
c.     Pursue a course according to law, not his own private views
d.    Preside over judges.
e.    When governors decease, then all chiefs shall assemble and nominate a new governor approved by the King
8.    House of Nobles
a.    No law of the nation shall be passed without assent of the House of Nobles.
9.    respecting the representative body
10. respecting the meeings of the legislative body
11. respecting the tax officers
12. of the judges
13. of the supreme judges
14. of changes in this constitution
a.    this constitution shall not be considered as finally established, until the people have generally heard it and have appointed persons according to the provisions herein made, and they have given their assent, then this constitution shall be considered as permanently established.
b.    But hereafter, if it should be thought desirable to change it, notice shall be previously given, that all the people may understand the nature of the proposed change, and the succeeding year, at the meeting of the Nobles and representative body, if they shall agree as to the addition proposed or as to the alteration, then they may make it.
c.     The above constitution has been agreed to by the Nobles, and we have hereunto subscribed our names, this COTOBER 8, 1840 at Honolulu, Oahu.  Kamehameha III Kekauluohi
[3] Richard Armstrong, minister of public instruction in 1850s, put in charge of kingdom’s census in 1850s.
[4] (SOT.113) British Consul Richard Charlton, over a greedy land dispute, and owing a business firm Valparaiso, a considerable sum, goes to England to resolve matter by “securing justice” for British citizens. Leaves Alexander Simpson in charge.  Simpson, always wanting to annex Hawaii for G.B. was not liked and refused consul. Wrote to Sir Richard Thomas who dispatched the frigate Carysfort to guard British interests, if necessary.
When Richard Charlton arrived in England to case his grievances, the British Foreign Office issued a policy statement about the Pacific, that their laws and customs be respected… maintain autonomous independence.
Williams Richard and Timothy Haalilio, fearing annexation, arrived in Washington convincing Daniel Webster Sec. Of State, that American Interests in the Pacific would be endangered if Hawaiian Islands should fall into the hands of  a European power
[5] At the time neither Paulet, nor Thomas knew of British Foreign Office Statement, and Paulet took control of Policy, creating havoc in Hawaii.  On July 26, Thomas arrives aboard HMS Dublin, to restore thekingdom,  On July 31, Admiral Thomas’ declaration of returning the sovereignty was issued.  Kauikeaouli’s speech was Ua Mau ke ea o ka aina I ka pono.
[6] Between 1845 and 1855 whaling fleets on N. Pacific were at their largest and prices for oil and bone were high.  In late 50s, industry entered irreversible decline.  Whaling grounds depleted, oil production in Pennsylvania was replacing whale oil.  During Civil War, the Union govt, bought them to sink to block the harbor entrance at Charleston, S.C.
[7] Organic Acts. In 1844 there were 14 white men working for the government; by 1851 there were 48: 25 Americans, 21 British, a French and a German. Each as a condition of employment signed an oath of allegiance to Kauikeaouli.
Judd, Wyllie and Ricord signed a “Political Creed” that pledged them to support the monarchy as indispensable to the preservation of the Hawaiian people. 
Dwight Baldwin and David Malo were against the haole rulers.
[8] THE MAHELE (SOT,125)
each year, land dispute grew.
Begin to break up the Ahupuaa land system where from tracts of land are broken up from mountain to sea, in which all the necessities of life are available: from mountain, wood, kapa for clothing, olona for fish line, ti-leaf for wrapping paper, wild birds for food, fish etc…  Each ahupuaa had a chief that commoners had to pay a tax to, but commoners could move around from one ahupuaa to another.
Kauikeaouli gave up all the rights to all the lands except for certain estates which became known as the crown lands, reserved to the reigning monarch.  Chiefs were given the chance to take out fee simple titles to land they had previously held in fief as retainers to the king—the ahupuaa land tracts. Commoners were allowed o buy small lots, or Kuleanas, in fee simple.  Chiefs and commoners alike have their lands surveyed and pay a commutation fee to perfect their titles.  Chiefs paid their fees in land, and this became government or public land,  Aliens were allowed to lease land for 50 years, and in 1850, legislation is passed allowing them to purchase property on the same terms as subjects of the kingdom
[9] Irony is that France’s real involvement with the islands were miniscule: in 1849, apart from priests, there were only 12 Frenchmen, one French merchant, one French tavern keeper, and only one complete cargo of French goods passed through customs.  In five years, not one French merchant vessel arrived and fewer than ten French whalers… is this what the treaty was about?  Were the French excluded from participating? Hmmmn.
[10] Consider looking at the two different treaties.  It’s an interesting story, the kind of story that is remarkable because the future of Hawaii as a territory could have been different if the John Clayton treaty stated otherwise,
1. [11] French warship Serieuse, arrived in Honolulu carrying new French Consul, Emile Perrin, and produced demands that echoed Dillon, and that he had powers to enforce them.
a. Although Perrin was bluffing, Kauikeaouli and his advisors sent memorandum to British Consul General Miller, asking to protect kingdom against the French
b. Miller spoke to Perrin, and knowing that Perrin would not use force, advised the King not to put the islands in the hands of any power.
c. Kauikeaouli prepared a document placing his possessions under the protection of the U.S. until France recognized Hawaii’s independence.                                                     i.     U.S. Commissioner Luther Severance accepted document in a sealed envelope
                                                      ii.     Severance conferred with Capt. William H. Gardner agreeing to fire of Serieuse if French used violence. Left in 1851.
[12] Masters and Servants Act
Hawaii was in need of labor to the plantations.  Set rules of conduct for “master” and “servant”.  Hawaiian law provided that immigrant workers be treated as citizens of the Kingdom,  Among their rights was the right to remain in Hawaii after the contract ended.
[13] SUGAR
1)    Gold Rush and Civil War helped Hawaiian Sugar Market.  Southern Sugar disappeared from the Union states and prices for sugar rose so high that planters could make a good profit , even after paying heavy tariffs at American ports of entry.
a.    1866 32 plantations with exports at 17.75 million pounds.
b.    Financial agencies that can arrange loans, import machinery and handle shipping and sale of sugar:  H. Hackfield & Co, Castle and Cooke and C. Brewer.  During Civil war, largest agency was Walker, Allen & Co.  which went bankrupt after war.
[14] Hawaiian Constitution of 1852 reduced power of King and gave legislature more power.  All official acts required the approval of the PRIVY COUNCIL
1.    [15] Committee of Thirteen, (SOT148) George Lathrop, physician who first diagnosed smallpox; Dr. Wesley Newcomb; William Ladd; JD Blair; John Mott Smith, dentist; Gregg?
a.    agitated against Gerrit Judd.
b.    George Lathrop considered Hawaiians nothing more than “niggers”        
c.     At times wanted annexation by the United States
d.    Considered establishing a revolutionary republic and sell with profit to the U.S.
e.    If islands entered Union as a state, Lathrop said, then Hawaiians would become American citizens, and committee was against equal rights for kanakas
f.      Planned a coup to arrest Kauikeaouli, Liholiho and gov. of Oahu, Kekuananoa so that an independent republican govt could be formed
                                                     i.     Privy Council (Wyllie) at odds with Committee of 13, placed 5,000$ at disposal of Sec of War, Wyllie and he recruited native soldiers and drill masters.  They favored annexation.
                                                      ii.     British Consul Miller said that if Hawaiians sign on to annexation they would deliver themselves to a country which practiced race hatred, slavery, vigilantism, lynch law, filled with crime and corruption, and congenital hatred for the aristocracy.
                                                        iii.     Prince Liholiho and lot were both humiliated when in the US, mistaken for negroes and set themselves against annexation for this reason.
                                                       iv.     Gregg & Capt. Dornin of USS Portsmouth, one of several warships in the harbor, advised Wyllie on Nov, 12 that instant surrender of sovereignty to the United States was the only way to escape violence.
                                                      v.     French warship L’artimise was also in harbor and Wyllie wrote to Perrin, asking for assistance.
                                                       vi.     Liholiho and Lee, were on the outer islands.  Lee, made sure that treaty, if ever it went to Washington would be unacceptable so inserted the clause that Hawaii, if annexed should enter as a state and not a territory.  He knew that because of race, it would never pass Congress,
[16] When he went to England with Judd and Lot, he thought Episcopal church more suitable to monarchy than Protestantism.  Rev. Thomas Nettleship Staley, from England, was picked. Waited to baptize Liholiho and Emma’s son, Prince Albert.  Queen Victoria was godmother by proxy.  Died in 1862.  Hawn. Reformed Catholic Church.  Within two weeks of arrival Emma was baptized, then Robert Wyllie, Charles Coffin Harris, Supreme court Justice George M. Robertson, High Chief David Kalakaua.  Staley became member of Privy Council.  Upset the Protestant Missionaries.  Staley encouraged revival of traditional dancing and chanting at the funeral of chiefs, hula.  And Hawaiians like the theatricality of the Episcopals.  When Liholiho died, memorial dances and chants were performed.  Staley arranged the order of the funeral
[17] Constitution of 1864 became law for 23 years.  Gave Kamehameha IV more power.
a.    it abolished the office of kuhina nui
b.    combined House of Representatives and House of Nobles in one: the legislative assembly.
c.     Required a man own property to be allowed to vote
d.    And voters born after 1849 be literate in either Hawaiian or English
a.    Article LXII
b.    Every male subject of the Kingdom, who shall have paid his taxes, who shall have attained the age of 20 years, and shall have been domiciled in the Kingdom for one year immediately preceding the election; and shall be possessed of Real Property in this Kingdom, to the value over and above all incumbrances of $150—or of a leasehold property on which the rent is $25 per year, derived from any property of some lawful employment, and shall know how to read and write, if born since the year 1840, and shall have caused his name to be on the list of voters of his District as may be provided by law, shall be entitled to one vote for the Representatives of that district.  Provided however, that no insane or idiotic person, nor any person who shall have been convicted of any infamous crime within the Kingdom, unless he shall have been pardoned by the King, and by the terms of such pardon have been restored to all the rights of a subject shall be allowed to vote.
[18] Under the threat of force, the Bayonet Constitution stripped Kalakaua of many powers.
a.    no longer appoint the House of Nobles (elected every six years)
b.     no absolute veto power
c.     over-ridden by 2/3 vote of legislature
d.    king’s cabinet became responsible not to him, but to legislature
e.    suffrage rights to male residents, not just male subjects
a.    many foreigners now had the right to vote
b.    two classes of voters
                                                     i.     those who could vote only for representatives
                                                      ii.     those who could vote for representatives and nobles.
1.    many Hawaiians were unable to meet these qualifications.
2.    reduced the power of the Hawaiians in the political lice of the Kingdom.
[19] The Act of Congress Organizing Hawaii into a Territory
An Act to Provide a government for the territory of Hawaii
1.    laws of Hawaii shall mean the Constitution and the laws of the Republic of Hawaii, in force August 12, 1899, at the time of the transfer of the sovereign of the Hawaiian Islands to the United States of America.
1. OBSTACLES TO STATEHOOD (LAE. 133) After 1945, overwhelming majority of Southern Congress opposes Statehood.
a. Congress should not require power to legislate in areas over which individual states assumed control after Reconstruction (libertarian)
b. Civil Rights and States Rights Issues.  Southern Democrats, as a block, most opposed Statehood.                                                     i.     Protect unique segregated social practices and laws.
1.    saw Hawaii as a direct threat to Southern authority.
                                                      ii.     Mississippi newspaper cautioned that Hawaii’s two senators might command major legislation involving racial issues.
                                                        iii.     Texas paper argued that Statehood would give Hawaii the right to exercise two Senators’ worth of self-determination on the South.
                                                       iv.     Hawaii’s mixed race could never be assimilated in American population.
                                                      v.     Mississippi Dem. James Eastland: Statehood for the Pacific Islands would contribute to the destruction of dual schools, social institutions, harmonious racial tensions.
                                                       vi.     Prince Preston, Jr. (dem. Ga) makes citizens with equal rights with 180,000 Japanese
                                                         vii.     Robert Hale ( R. Maine) argued on racial superiority of whites vs. Asians.
c. Northern Republican states wanted to preserve the existing voting strength in Congress.
d. Did not want to set precedent for Statehood with Alaska, Virgin Islands, Puerto Rico.
e.  Except for Larcade, most senators feared non-white representation in Congress.
[21] LABOR issue
1.    1944 the only large union in the islands was the International Longshoreman’s and Warehousemen’s Union (ILWU).
a.    War weakened grip of plantation owners and big business on labor.
b.    Stimulated demand for more varied work force. Labor was prepared to challenge entrenched economic and political forces in the territory.
                                                     i.     Before Pearl Harbor, Labor lost ground in strike situations.
c.     sugar strike of 1946.
                                                     i.     21,000 sugar plantations, members of ILWU went on strike
1.    closed down 33 of 34 plantations for 74 days
2.    Non-Caucasians sympathized with labor, Caucasians with employer interests.
d.    unions won.  Hall claims: the interracial unity and determination of the workers to end for all time dictatorial control over their lives and destinies is the outstanding feature of the strike.
2.    Unions and Democratic Party
a.    Successful bid for influence in the legislature.  ILWH endorsed sympathetic candidates in Nov. 45’ elections
                                                     i.     Labor endorses 21 candidates for 30 seat lower house
                                                      ii.     endorsed 7 candidates in Senate
                                                        iii.     ILWH officials were elected: Joseph Kaholokula and Amos Ignacio
1.    non whites comprised majority of democratic party while republican party was 2/3 white.
b.    race factor. Democratic party: Burns, Hall David Benz, Murai, Kido, Aoki and Kawano, Chuck Mau.  In post war months called Burns faction. Mostly Japanese, Filipino, and to a lesser extent, Hawaiian and Chinese.
                                                     i.     Mau was unofficial political leader
                                                      ii.     Kawano union organizer
                                                        iii.     labor was Hall, party activities was Burns
                                                       iv.     took over Democratic party which was weak
1.    from 46-56, Burns faction was responsible for defeating old guard Democrats: Stainback, Charles and Harold Rice, Heen, Trask and Holt families
c.     Desire to create equal opportunity.
d.    Joined by WWII veterans Dan Inouye and Sparky Matsunaga.
e.    Burns Program:
                                                     i.     Assistance to returning Vets
                                                      ii.     Pursuit of equality of opportunity
                                                        iii.     Free public education and expanded role for education in the lives of people.
                                                       iv.     Improved standards of living via political strategies
1.    minimum wage
2.    unemployment benefits
                                                      v.     progressive taxation according to
1.    ability to pay
2.    real property
a.    land being monopolized by few should be turned over to the many
b.    real property taxes based on highest and best use
c.     unfreeze land for residential purposes
3.    Immediate statehood was a primary aim for this group.
a.    Symbolize and confirm the equality of Hawaii’s non-whites under the American Constitution.
b.    Statehood  enjoyed more united support from local Japanese than any other ethnic group (LAE145)
4.    opponents to Statehood
a.    Few voiced public hostility to Statehood
b.    The quiet hostilities against statehood
                                                     i.     Racial reasons
                                                      ii.     Bad for business
                                                        iii.     Alienate the now significant Japanese ethnic group.
c.     the results of a ballot on Statehood in 1946 by the Chamber of Commerce suggest that there was considerable minority opposition from business interests and whites in Hawaii
                                                     i.     2/3 of 1,307 members of the chamber were Caucasian or part-Hawaiians.
                                                      ii.     42% of membership returned ballots
                                                        iii.     170 opposed immediate statehood. Majority of negative returns were unsigned.
                                                       iv.     1/3 opposed immediate admission
d.    10% of testimony to 1946 subcommittee was negative, local opposition was more widespread.  Honolulu Advertiser (never gave unqualified support for statehood) remarks on 1946 hearings: It was unfortunate that opposing testimony was not better documented and more forcefully delivered.
                                                     i.     Outspoken member of Senate, William Hill (R.) claimed that the majority was reluctant to express true opinion because of fear of political and economic retaliation at the hands of certain racial groups and certain politicians seeking to use the statehood issue for their own glory and political advantage
                                                      ii.     Articulated opposition and real opposition were two different things.  Few people were prepared to acknowledge openly their belief that statehood would turn Hawaii over to the Japanese.
1.    Hawaii not sufficiently Americanized
2.    Various ethnic groups not adequately assimilated to warrant statehood.
3.    Hawaiian and Caucasians equated majority rule with domination by an alien.
                                                        iii.     In 1956 those opposed to reapportionment finally lost their fight and the Democratic controlled legislature instituted the first redistribution of electoral districts since the Organic Act of 1900.
e.    local statehood activists claimed 90% of Hawaii’s people advocated Statehood. House subcommittee that a majority of at least 2-1 wanted Statehood.
f.      The Big Five made statehood inappropriate
                                                     i.     Landholding remained concentrated in hands of few
                                                      ii.     Confirm centralized economic and land control of these large companies, statehood should be delayed until the economic fabric of the islands became more open equal.
                                                        iii.     Some made unsubstantiated claims that the Japanese supported the reigning white oligarchy of the Big Five.
1.    statehood would consolidate Big five’s monopoly of labor, agriculture, manufacturing, banking, transport and public services.
g.    Alice Campbell formed an anti-statehood committee
[22]  1.  (LAE 132) Most Senators who backed statehood, also backed civil rights measures.
1.    Public crusade against Communists, subversives, liberals
a.    Pat McCarran (D.) chairman of Senate Judiciary Committee, like Sen. Joe McCarthy.
                                                     i.     Anxious to stamp out “Communist-liberal heresy of racial-equality”
b.    Many Americans were apparently prepared to abandon part of the nation’s Constitution and deny full citizenship rights to those who espoused a conflicting ideology of supported a fringe political group like the C.P.
c.     Partly due to Soviet gains in East Europe, China’s conversion in 1949, Korea in the early 50s, conservatives felt that America was being eroded from within.
2.    Conservative democrats Stainback and Chief Justice James L. Coke.
3.    cold war suspicions. Statehood would consolidate the economic and political control of the islands by militant left-wing, allegedly communist controlled labor unions. (LAE 150)
a.    Hall and Kawano were Communist suspects.  Both close to Burns and Mau.
b.    In April 1947, Hugh Butler, chairman of the Senate Public Lands Committee claimed that entry would be delayed until labor interests stopped controlling territory’s government, and suggested that Hawaii be incorporated as a County of California.
c.     Stainback accepted this view and refused to endorse statehood.
                                                     i.     Pledged to unearth the dangers of Communism and requested an investigation of the problem by the US dept. of Justice.
compiled by Statehood 50/